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Alloy 28 Chemical composition (nominal) %
Alloy 28 Mechanical properties
Alloy 28 Physical properties
Alloy 28 Corrosion resistance
Alloy 28 properties
Alloy 28 equivalent
Alloy 28 Forms of supply
Alloy 28 Heat treatment
Alloy 28 Welding
Alloy 28 Fabrication
Alloy 28 Applications
Alloy 28 chemical composition

Alloy 28 Applications

Due to its outstanding corrosion properties, Alloy 28 can be used in the most diverse environments. Listed below are a few examples of applications for which this alloy is particularly suitable.

Phosphoric acid

Today, Alloy 28 is the most widely used metallic material for evaporator tubes in the manufacture of phosphoric acid by the "wet " method. Several units have now been in service for more than 10 years. The graphite heat exchangers, replaced by Alloy 28, often had repeated problems with broken tubes and loss of production.

Sulphuric acid

Alloy 28 is a suitable material for piping and heat exchangers, particularly at concentrations of between 40 and 70% of deaerated acid and over 85%. Alloy 28 has approximately the same resistance as Alloy C in concentrated acid (98% H2SO4).

Oil and gas

Alloy28 is used for production tubing, casing and liners in deep, sour gas wells. The material is also recommended for oil wells with a corrosive environment. For these purposes, tubes are supplied cold rolled with high strength. In the solution annealed condition, Alloy 28 is also used as piping for transporting of corrosive oil and gas and for heat exchangers in treatment facilities. Alloy 28 wirelines are used for lowering tools and controlling instruments in deep oil and gas wells.

Fluoride-bearing media

Fluoride-bearing off-gases can form during the manufacture of phosphoric acid and mixed fertilizers. These off-gases must be disposed of for environmental reasons. Alloy 28 is ideal for this purpose. Tests have shown it to be preferable to higher alloyed CrNiMo grades for the recovery of fluoride-bearing gypsum.

Nuclear power plants

Due to its high resistance to SCC, pitting and crevice corrosion, Alloy 28 has been selected for heat exchangers in nuclear power plants.

Seawater and chloride-bearing cooling water

Its high resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion makes Alloy 28 a very suitable material for seawater-carrying piping and seawater-cooled heat exchangers. This is confirmed by practical experience.

Alloy 28 has replaced nickel alloys, CuNi, bimetallic tubes and coated carbon steel tubes, which failed due to corrosion. The performance of Alloy 28 has been excellent.

In seawater-cooled heat exchangers and heat exchangers that work with chloride-bearing cooling water, Alloy 28 offers high corrosion resistance to both the water and the cooled medium.

When a seawater-cooled plant is shut down, there is no need to drain the piping system or flush with fresh water, provided that the shutdown period is shorter than one month and the water temperature is lower than 30°C (85°F).

The duplex stainless steel SAF 2507 is more resistant than Alloy 28 in sea water.

Alloy 28 (Tube and Pipe, Seamless)

Datasheet updated 2015-02-16 10:39:36 (supersedes all previous editions)

Alloy 28 is a high-alloy multi-purpose austenitic stainless steel for service in highly corrosive conditions. The grade is characterized by:

  • Very high corrosion resistance in strong acids
  • Very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular corrosion in various environments
  • High resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion
  • Good weldability


  • UNS N08028
  • ISO 4563-080-28-I
  • EN number 1.4563
  • EN name X 1 NiCrMoCu 31-27-4
  • W.Nr. 1.4563
  • DIN X 1 NiCrMoCuN 31 27 4
  • SS 2584
  • AFNOR Z1NCDU31-27-03

Product standards

Seamless tube and pipe: ASTM B 668; EN 10216-5; SEW 400 (Feb 1991); SS 14 25 84;
NFA 49-217
Plate, sheet and strip: ASTM B 709, EN 10088-2; SS 14 25 84
Bar steel: EN 10088-3; SS 14 25 84
Fittings: ASTM A 403 (chemical composition and mechanical properties according to ASTM B668)


Approved by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for use in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section III, section I (Code Case 1325-18) and section VIII, division 1. VdTÃœV-Werkstoffblatt 483 (Austenitischer Walz- und Schmiedestahl) NACE MR 0103 (Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments) NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 (sulphide stress cracking resistant material for oil field equipment) NGS 1608 (Nordic rules for application) valid for Alloy 28 made by

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